By Maureen Clerc, Laurent Bougrain, Fabien Lotte
Brain–computer interfaces (BCI) are units which degree mind task and translate it into messages or instructions, thereby establishing up many chances for research and alertness. This ebook offers keys for figuring out and designing those multi-disciplinary interfaces, which require many fields of craftsmanship resembling neuroscience, information, informatics and psychology.
This moment quantity, expertise and purposes, is concentrated at the box of BCI from the viewpoint of its finish clients, akin to people with disabilities to practitioners. protecting medical purposes and the sphere of games, the publication then is going directly to discover person wishes which force the layout and improvement of BCI. The software program used for his or her layout, essentially OpenViBE, is defined step-by-step, earlier than a dialogue at the use of BCI from moral, philosophical and social perspectives.
The easy notions constructed during this reference publication are meant to be available to all readers drawn to BCI, no matter what their history. extra complicated fabric can also be provided, for readers who are looking to extend their wisdom in disciplinary fields underlying BCI.
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Extra info for Brain-Computer Interfaces 2: Technology and Applications
Real-time approaches to communication Thus, active paradigms possess all the ingredients of a BCI, except that they do not operate in real time. In this context, the purpose of a BCI would be to provide an operational tool, as simple and practical as possible, that may be used at the patient’s bedside [LUA 15]. This is why the most commonly preferred technique is once again EEG [CRU 11]. Of course, similarly to other applications of BCI, the goal is to establish a line of communication (decode a response online) on the basis of a small number of signals, which are usually noisy.
They are in particular strongly linked to the etiology of the coma. The clinical progression of traumatic comas is generally more favorable than that of anoxic comas, with a faster and stronger recovery of consciousness. One very speciﬁc and infrequent postcoma state is locked-in syndrome (LIS, see [BAU 79]), which arises as a result of lesions on the brainstem. This is not a consciousness disorder, as patients awaken from coma fully conscious, but with full paralysis in all voluntary muscles except for the eyelids.
3. Visual frequency markers A third well-known category of BCI that has recently been explored for communicating with patients with LIS or disorders of consciousness is the 18 Brain–Computer Interfaces 2 category of visual frequency markers (SSVEP, see Chapter 4 of Volume 1). This marking system is based on the repetition of a visual stimulus at a given frequency. The successive responses evoked by these stimuli produce a strong signal at the same frequency as the stimuli. This signal is known to be ampliﬁed when attention is focused on one such stream of stimuli.
Brain-Computer Interfaces 2: Technology and Applications by Maureen Clerc, Laurent Bougrain, Fabien Lotte