By David Levinson, David Levinson; Karen Christensen
The "Berkshire Encyclopedia of worldwide game" tackles the entire international of activity, from significant expert activities and sprting occasions to group and adolescence activities. It covers the company of sports--marketing, administration, and ownership--as good as key social matters starting from doping, racism, sexism, and adolescence participation, to functionality enhancement and activities psychology. insurance starts off with the origins of recreation between pre-historic hunters and gatherers and extends to the worldwide activities of the twenty-first century.
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Extra info for Berkshire encyclopedia of world sport
Eating disorders in athletes: A review of the literature. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 4, 145–159. , & Cowles, M. (1989). A comparison of weight and diet concerns and personality factors among female athletes and nonathletes. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 33, 527–536. DIVING Eichner, E. R. (1992). General health issues of low body weight and undereating in athletes. In K. D. Brownell, J. Rodin, & J. H. ), Eating, body weight and performance in athletes: Disorders of modern society (pp.
Collaborative efforts among organizations and administration will likely be needed for further prevention of eating disorders and female athlete triad disorders. These efforts may entail rule DISORDERED EATING 469 Table 2. Signs, Symptoms, and Medical Complications of Disordered Eating Orofacial Lipid abnormalities Perimolysisb Obesityb Dental cariesb Renal Cheilosisb Renal calculi b Enlargement of the parotid gland Reproductive Cardiovascular Infertility Postural and nonpostural hypotension Insufficient weight gain during pregnancy Acrocyanosis Low-birth weight infant Electrocardiographic abnormalities: low voltage, prolonged QT interval, prominenta U waves Integumentary Sinus bradycardia Hair loss Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias Lanugo Left ventricular changes: decreased mass, decreased cavity size Yellow skin due to hypercarotenemia Mitral-valve prolapse Hand abrasions Cardiomyopathy (due to ipecac poisoning) Neurologic Gastrointestinal Peripheral neuropathy Esophagitis hematemesis (including Mallory-Weiss syndrome)b Reversible cortical atrophy Delayed gastric emptying Decreased intestinal motility Constipation Rectal prolapse Gastric dilatation and ruptureb Abnormal results on liver-function tests Elevated serum amylase level Endocrine and metabolic Hypokalemia (including hypokalemic nephropathy) Hyponatremia, hypernatremia (rarely) Hypomagnesemia Hyperphosphatemia Dry skin and hair Ventricular enlargement Hematologic Anemia, leucopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia Fluids and electrolytes Dehydration Edema Electrolyte abnormalities Hypokalemia Muscle cramps Metabolic alkalosis Thermoregulation Hypothermiaa Hypoglycemia Others Hypothermia Euthyroid sick syndrome Significant weight loss (beyond that necessary for optimal sport performance)a Hypercortisolism, elevated free cortisol level in urine Frequent and often extreme weight fluctuationsb Low serum estradiol level Low weight despite eating large volumesb Decreased serum testosterone level Amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea Fatigue (beyond that normally expected in training or competition) Delay in puberty Muscle weakness Arrested growth More training (aerobic type) than required for performance enhancement Osteoporosis Stress fractures aEspecially for anorexia nervosa; bespecially for bulimia nervosa.
One pound of fat contains approximately 3,500 calories, so to lose one pound a week an individual should consume 3,500 fewer calories each week. This can best be achieved by reducing daily caloric intake by 500 calories a day. It is also important to note that exercise burns calories, so an overall caloric deficit can be achieved through a combination of exercise and modified eating—weight loss does not have to be solely about a reduced food intake. The lowest recommended daily intake is 1,500 calories for men and 1,200 calories for women.
Berkshire encyclopedia of world sport by David Levinson, David Levinson; Karen Christensen