By Safa Kasap, Harry Ruda, Yann Boucher
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Additional resources for An illustrated dictionary of optoelectronics and photonics: Important terms and effects
The finite width 2wo where the wavefronts are parallel is called the waist of the beam; wo is the waist radius and 2wo is the spot size. Far away from the source, the beam diameter 2w increases linearly with distance z. y Wave fronts x 2wo O z Beam axis Intensity Gaussian r 2w (a) Wavefronts of a Gaussian light beam. (b) Light intensity across beam cross section. (c) Light irradiance (intensity) vs. radial distance r from beam axis (z). Germania is germanium dioxide, GeO2, glass. Glan-Foucault prism produces a linearly polarized light.
8E g + E phonon. where Ephonon is a phonon energy term. 8Eg. Further in many crystalline semiconductors, just like the optical quantum efficiency, W± is field independent and well defined. This W± is so well defined in crystalline semiconductors, such as high purity Ge, ZnCdTe, for example, that they are used in spectrometers to measure the energy of the incident X-rays or high energy charged particles. 2Eg + Ephonon where the latter is again a small phonon energy term. O. 5 eV AgCl a-Se Si InSb PbS 4 Que and Rowlands TlBr AgBr PbI2 HgI2 a-Si:H 2 Ge 0 0 1 2 3 4 Band gap (eV) 5 6 EHP creation energy W± vs energy bandgap for semiconductors (for a-Se W± is field dependent and the value plotted is extrapolated to very large fields so that W± is “intrinsic” or saturated EHP creation energy).
Ee Se = Power flow ke ke An extraordinary wave in an anisotropic crystal with a wavevector ke at an angle to the optic axis. The electric field Ee is not normal to ke. The energy flow (group velocity) is along Se (the Poynting vector) which is different than ke. Wavefronts (constant phase fronts) Extrinsic semiconductor is a semiconductor that has been doped so that the concentration of one type of charge carriers far exceeds that of the other. Adding donor impurities releases electrons into the conduction band and the concentration of electrons (n) in the conduction band (CB) far exceeds the concentration of holes (p) in the valence band (VB) and the semiconductor becomes n-type.
An illustrated dictionary of optoelectronics and photonics: Important terms and effects by Safa Kasap, Harry Ruda, Yann Boucher