By E. Lütjen-Drecoll
The phenomenon of getting older is characterised by way of a variety of degenerative alterations, which differentially have an effect on the hugely really good buildings in the eye, resembling the merely mobile lens, the brain-derived retina and the connective tissue of the uvea and sclera. consequently, the attention can function an outstanding version procedure to check age-related degenerative illnesses. an summary article bargains with the molecular biology of alpha-B-crystallin, and unique articles provide extra perception into the distribution and attainable practical value of nonlenticular alpha-B-crystallin. Retinal transplantation reviews which could eventually result in remedy for tapetoretinal degeneration and age-related macular degeneration are mentioned. extra, elements that impression the advance of the retinal tissues are investigated. And one other evaluate examines cells of the deep lens fibers. This unique factor is an in-depth resource of data to ophthalmologists in learn and perform.
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Extra info for Aging and Age Related Ocular Diseases (Ophthalmologica, 1)
In human open-angle glaucoma, changes in the extracellular material and in immunohistochemical staining of astrocytes for GFAP and neural cell adhesion molecule have been described [35, 36]. So far, ·B-crystallin and vimentin have not been investigated in glaucomatous optic nerves. In contrast to what is seen in the brain, in the normal optic nerve all glial cells which stained for Optic Nerve in Monkeys with Laser Glaucoma GFAP also stained for ·B-crystallin, indicating that optic nerve astrocytes express this small stress protein.
The exact sequence of events leading to the spikes has not been clarified . However, it is known that the application of barium blocks a number of potassium channels and should therefore depolarize the cells. Depolarization in turn opens voltage-operated (nifedipine-sensitive) calcium channels; driven by the concentration gradient, Ca2+ ions flow in, leading to further depolarization. The rise in cytosolic calcium, especially in the compart- Stumpff/Wiederholt ment immediately under the cell membrane, should then activate calcium-dependent potassium channels, leading to repolarization in form of the downward stroke of the spike.
Removal of external chloride reversed the direction of regulation. Removal of sodium had no impact, while DIDS blocked alkaline extrusal. These experiments point to the existence of two additional pHi-regulating transporters in trabecular meshwork – the sodium-dependent and the sodium-independent chloride-bicarbonate exchangers. Regulation of Trabecular Meshwork Contractility Fig. 9. Measurement of pHi using bovine trabecular meshwork. After an acidifying prepulse with NH4Cl, the pHi returns to the resting level.
Aging and Age Related Ocular Diseases (Ophthalmologica, 1) by E. Lütjen-Drecoll