By Piet H. L. Bovy , Jean-Pierre Orfeuil Ilan Salomon
A Billion journeys an afternoon: culture and Transition in eu TravelPatterns contains twenty-four unique chapters constructed by way of a community of shipping pros in a coordinated demeanour. the 3 components of the booklet are: eu Mobility styles; Dimensions of ecu Mobility, and nationwide views. Mobility in fourteen international locations is defined and ten chapters of study evaluate the most important dimensions of trip throughout Europe, that is obvious as a laboratory for shipping regulations.
A Billion journeys an afternoon: culture and Transition in ecu TravelPatterns questions the individuality of eu commute and delivery regulations and demonstrates that, in lots of methods, Europe isn't like different constructed economies. even if, there are aspect dissimilarities inside of Europe. The authors take a deep examine the underlying elements which have an effect on go back and forth habit, with the target of supplying the mandatory details for coverage making. The comparative chapters of half II supply an research according to nationwide views of the position of the time size shuttle; car possession and use; commuting; public shipping; and foreign shuttle. in addition they assessment the delivery regulations utilized in Europe, explaining why a few rules paintings in a few areas, whereas failing in others.
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Additional resources for A Billion Trips a Day: Tradition and Transition in European Travel Patterns
W::~~:::::::",:,:::, ':'::::'::::"::::':':'::,,", . ;/;:::'~-B::':':': 50 100 150 200 250 300 Cars/lOOOinh Motorization in Western Europe Source: ECMT (1990), EUROSTAT (1990) 350 400 450 500 24 Europe: A Hererogenous 'Single Marker' prices, ages, types, etc. so that nearly no limit to car ownership exists, except for the very poor and disabled. With multiple cars in a household, there is a growing diversity of car types for specialized purposes. Due to differing pricing policies of manufacturers and to differing taxing policies of govemments within Europe, car costs (car prices, taxation, fuel) vary widely among countries (see Chapter 6).
1). Travel times and temporal distribution of trips: Travel times is a key issue for mobility analysis: congestion related time loss is often the justification for transport investment and the relative speed of modes is a key element for modal competition and individual 39 Orfeuil & Salomon ehoice. Despite inereasing eongestion, the mean total travel time evolves mueh slower than travelled distances, due to the inerease in leisure trips whieh take plaee at offperiod, more importantly, the inereasing role of the ear as a personal means of transport.
Kontiv in Germany) or with important differences (a seven day period for national surveys, weekdays only for urban area in France). • The fourth group is limited to the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, with routine national surveys or panels, aimed to assess the effects of policies or strategies on travel behaviour. Over time there was an evident shift in most countries from including only motor vehicle trips to an enlarged set of mode, fmally to include walking in travel surveys. 2 Methodologies and field of the surveys There is quite an agreement on the definition of a trip.
A Billion Trips a Day: Tradition and Transition in European Travel Patterns by Piet H. L. Bovy , Jean-Pierre Orfeuil Ilan Salomon