By Richard H. Groshong
It is a guide of useful concepts for making the absolute best interpretation of geological constructions on the map scale and for extracting the utmost quantity of knowledge from floor and subsurface maps. The 3D constitution is outlined through internally constant constitution contour maps and go sections of all horizons and faults. The ebook is directed towards the pro consumer who's eager about either the accuracy of an interpretation and the rate with which it may be got from incomplete information. Quantitative tools are emphasised all through, and various analytical options are on condition that should be simply applied with a pocket calculator or a spreadsheet. Interpretation recommendations are outlined for GIS or CAD clients, but are basic sufficient to be performed via hand. The consumer of this e-book may be capable of produce higher geological maps and pass sections, pass judgement on the standard of present maps, and find and attach mapping mistakes.
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Additional resources for 3-D Structural Geology: A Practical Guide to Surface and Subsurface Map Interpretation
Two different projections are commonly used in structural interpretation, the equal-area net (Schmidt or Lambert net) and the equal-angle stereographic net (Wulff net). The different projection techniques result in the preservation of different properties of the original sphere (Greenhood 1964). The equal-area net is required if points are to be contoured into spatially meaningful concentrations. An equal-angle net produces false concentrations from an evenly spaced distribution of points, although the angular relationships are correct.
For example, find the apparent dips along the azimuths 080 and 180 for the plane plotted previously (δ = 32, 150). Plot lines from the center of the graph in the azimuth directions (Fig. 15a). The intersections of the azimuth lines with the great circle are the apparent dips. Dips can be read from the N-S axis as well as the E-W and so the 180° azimuth is in measurement direction. The angle measured inward from the primitive circle to the intersection is the apparent dip, 28°. The overlay is rotated into measurement position for the 080° azimuth (Fig.
The positions of points in three dimensions will be described in terms of a right-handed Cartesian coordinate system with +x = east, +y = north, and +z = up. Dimensions will be given in feet and kilofeet or meters and kilometers, depending on the units of the original source of the data. Parts of a foot will be expressed as a decimal fraction. Unit conversions are a common source of error which are largely avoided by retaining the original units of the map or well log. The relationships between locations on a topographic map or well log and the xyz coordinate system are given next.
3-D Structural Geology: A Practical Guide to Surface and Subsurface Map Interpretation by Richard H. Groshong